Remember the famous Norton Disk Doctor during the good DOS days? Bad sectors occurred frequently that you need these tools for error-checking: scan for file system structure and recovery of bad sectors.
CHKDSK is a command line disk utility that verifies the integrity of your file system structure and the hard disk drive.
Checks a disk and displays a status report.
CHKDSK [volume[[path]filename]]] [/F] [/V] [/R] [/X] [/I] [/C] [/L[:size]] [/B]
volume Specifies the drive letter (followed by a colon),
Adding /I or /C switch reduces the amount of time required to run Chkdsk by skipping certain checks of the volume.
By default, it scans and checks the file system for logical errors but it will not fix any of the problems it finds.
You can use this command line parameters to check and repair disk errors: chkdsk /r /f c:
To save time: chkdsk /r /f /i /c c:
If the disk is being used by another process, the tool will execute after the system reboots.
Chkdsk cannot run because the volume is in use by another process. Would you like to schedule this volume to be checked the next time the system restarts? (Y/N) y
To access the graphical version of the tool: In Windows Explorer, select and right-click on the drive > select Properties > tools tab and click Check Now.
Same with command line version tool, if you are checking your boot disk and it is being used by another process, check disk will execute after the system reboots.
Hope this helps!