A firewall profile is a way of grouping all the security rules, such as firewall and connection security settings, that are applied to the computer depending on the location where the computer is connected.
For computers running Vista, Windows 7 and above, there are three profiles for Windows Firewall with Advanced Security:
Domain settings are applied to a network adapter when it is connected to the domain to which the computer is joined. The Domain network is used for domain networks such as those at enterprise workplaces.
Configuration are applied to a network adapter when it is connected to a network that is identified by the administrator as a private network.
Settings are applied to a network adapter when it is connected to a public network such as coffee shops and airports. This helps to protect your computer from any malicious software from the Internet.
These configuration means that if a network adapter is connected to the corresponding group of firewall rules e.g. public network, then all traffic going to or from that network is filtered by the firewall settings associated with the public profile.
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